Volume X, Issue 1, 2016


Articles

Population in History

Raluca Botoș, Daniela Mârza, Vlad Popovici – Censuses between Population Statistics and Polices. The Romanian Press from Hungary and the Censuses between 1869 and 1910
Page 5

Abstract

The paper focuses on the censuses conducted within the Kingdom of Hungary (as part of Austria-Hungary) between 1869 and 1910, with the aim of highlighting the reaction of the Romanian population and society at the census procedures and results. Since population statistics represented one of the main gears of shifting the official demographic balance in favour of the Hungarians, each new census and the modifications brought by it, together with the results, opened the path for debates within the Romanian society, reverberating mostly in press articles. The newspapers’ attitude and discourse grew more and more radical by the decade and technical statistical issues and definitions (e.g. the “mother tongue”) were turned into subjects of debate, highlighting how the evolution of the censuses’ categorization and classification system was perceived by a population who was, at the time, in a clear defensive position against the state.

Keywords

census registration, Hungary, second half of the 19th century, Romanian press

Izabela Georgiana Coroian – The Seasonality of Mortality in Three Transylvanian Settlements in the Second Half of the 19th Century
Page 19

Abstract

Demographic studies focused on various localities in late 19th century Transylvania have revealed a high death rate during certain seasons (in the wintertime and the beginning of spring) or even during certain months (June and July). The change in these rates has been attributed to the influence of various epidemiological factors, such as bronchopulmonary diseases fostered by cold environments. This paper will contribute to the study of the seasonality of human mortality in Transylvania during the second half of the 19th century by focusing on three settlements with varied geographic, anthropological and social characteristics. The analysis will be based on parish records that have been included in the “Historical Population Database of Transylvania”, the only database of its kind in the region, and on late 19th century censuses. The paper will trace the influence of factors such as geographic location, occupation, gender, ethnicity and confession on the seasonality of mortality. Moreover, the analysis will include a discussion of the causes of death (epidemiological factors), correlated with the age-group distribution of mortality.

Keywords

seasonality of mortality, Transylvania, nineteenth century, population studies, historical demography, HPDT.

Elena Crinela Holom – Patriarchal Relationships in Romanian Rural Communities in Transylvania (Second Half of the 19th Century – Early 20th Century)
Page 37

Abstract

This research paper tackles the patriarchal relationships in the Romanian rural society in Transylvania, based on the patriarchy index developed by Siegfried Gruber and Mikołaj Szołtysek (2015). Composed of four sub-indexes (domination of men over women; domination of the elderly over the young; patrilocality; preference for sons over daughters), this model was established to answer questions regarding the intensity of this phenomenon, while also allowing for comparisons over time and between different social groups. The index was applied to data collected during the 1869 census in the village of Telciu and to data extracted from household registers in Budeşti and Miceştii de Câmpie in 1901. The selected villages are part of the existing BistriţaNăsăud county (Romania). The village of Telciu had an old military tradition, while the villages of Budeşti and Miceştii de Câmpie, which were located just 17 kilometres away from one another, were in fact situated outside the old Romanian second border regiment. The villages’ ethnic structures were eminently Romanian and their inhabitants were Greek Catholics. The results of the research demonstrate that the Telciu village was more patriarchal than the other two villages analysed. In Telciu, the elder generation was dominant over the young, there was a higher rate of patrilocality and a notable preference for sons.

Keywords

Household, patriarchy, patriarchy index, Transylvania.

Mimoza Dushi – Women and Family in Albanian Society according to Moral Codes, 15th – 20th Centuries
Page 59

The origin of Albanian moral codes derives from the tribal society, its pre state formation. These codes had passed through generations from the 15th to the 20th century in the regions of north Albania and Kosovo; but for the first time they were codified and put in written in the 19th century by an Albanian priest Shtjefën Gjeçovi. Since these norms were functional at the time of the Albanian Prince Lekë Dukagjini (1410-1481), he formally named them Kanuni i Lekë Dukagjinit (English: The Code of Lekë Dukagjini). During the time when these codes were written and many decades later, they were used as family and society regulations and rules, covering a wide range of instances, such as church, marriage, house, livestock and property, labour, transfer of property, heritage, etc. This paper explores the position of women in Albanian society according to these moral codes. It reveals details on women’s position and premarital duties, as a girl in her maiden home and after marriage, as a woman in her husband’s home; as well as her rights on property and heritage in both families.

Keywords

women, Albanian society, common law, father’s family, spouse’s family



Contemporary Population

Krishna Kumar Pandey, Mritunjay Pal Singh, R D Sings – A Study of Maternal Status, Household Structure and Children’s Nutritional Status in India
Page 77

Abstract

Almost half (48 per cent) of the children under five years of age are stunted in India. Stunting and other forms of under-nutrition are thought to be responsible for nearly half of all child deaths globally. Understanding the factors that contribute to high prevalence of stunting is important for child development and child survival. This study examines the maternal and household determinants of stunting, using data from the 2005-06 National Family Health Survey (NFHS). Sample consists of 45,378 children who were born within the five years preceding the survey and whose mothers were interviewed at the time of survey. Analyses focus on children age 0-59 months whose weight and height were measured at the time of survey. Descriptive statistics (frequency and percentages) was used to describe the data. The logistic regression model also makes it possible to predict the stunting among children. Our results show that rural children were more likely to be stunted (50.7%) as compared to their urban counterparts (39.9%). After controlling education and wealth index, no other maternal and household variables are significantly associated with stunting for rural sample. The lowest probability (39%) of stunting was observed for children living in the urban area, whose mother have secondary/higher education and in the highest wealth index group. Educated women were more likely to realize the benefits of healthy eating habit of children; therefore their children were less likely to be stunt. Children living in the rural area and those in the poorer wealth quintile were more disadvantaged.

Keywords

education, wealth, income, nuclear family and stunting

Viorela Ducu – Experiences from “Home” – Belonging to a Transnational Family
Page 91

Abstract

This paper will make the voice of transnational families’ representatives heard who have remained at home, in villages in Romania. Their experiences show that departure of some family members redefines the life of those remaining at home and that migration cannot be viewed as belonging to the departed: it is a common experience of the whole family. The dichotomy “departed” and “remaining” loses its meaning and a new approach emerges towards the phenomenon of migration as a shared, not an individual, experience. The way in which the worlds of those at home are intertwined with the worlds of those departed is the central node of this paper and starting from there we shall show that transnational families are types of families that present a real challenge for their members.

Keywords

Co-presence, co-absence, transnational contact, transnational lives.

Veronica Someșan, Mihaela Hărăguș – Elderly Needs and Support Received
Page 105

Abstract

Old age comes with health deterioration and limitations in everyday activities, as well as feelings of loneliness and depression. When there is a shortfall between the care and support a person needs and what they actually receive, we are in the presence of unmet needs for support. We investigate the degree of unmet needs for support, as well as the risk factors for such a situation, using Generation and Gender Survey data for Romania (wave 1). We found that partner’s absence is strongly associated with a situation of unmet emotional needs, as we expected. Being childless also increase the likelihood of loneliness-related unmet emotional needs, but a close proximity to the children is not always emotionally beneficial since conflicts can occur. It seems that weaknesses in the functional status of the elderly are associated with more frequent interactions with close people and, thus, with a low likelihood of having unmet emotional needs.

Keywords

Elderly, emotional needs, loneliness, depression, care needs, intergenerational support, unmet needs.

Cristina Faludi – Pathways to Childlessness among Women and Man: Is the Romanian Case Unique or Common in the Eastern Part of Europe?
Page 133

Abstract

This paper investigates the determinants of childlessness among men and women from Bulgaria, Romania and Russia, using data on a sub-sample of 3049 years old respondents from the first wave of Generations and Gender Survey (2004-2005). For each country, two models of logistic regression were conducted to contrast childless men and women with fathers and mothers. Covariates comprising background and work related characteristics, early life course variables, attitudes and values were used in the regression models. The outcomes of the multivariate analysis revealed a set of similarities, both from the gender and country perspective as well. Childless women and men from all three countries have younger ages and acquired a higher level of education compared with mothers and fathers. In the same time, childless people originated from families with a unique child, and claimed secularized attitudes and values. However, other covariates point at different roads leading to childlessness in the three Eastern European countries. In Romania, women who grew up in urban areas, hired in top jobs positions and who attended more often religious services are more likely to remain childless than women from villages, holding blue collar jobs or being unemployed, and who are less religious. Instead, men with lower levels of education and less prestigious jobs were more likely to remain childless, compared with men with a university degree and with a top job position. In Bulgaria, men whose mother is more educated and women whose father held a better job have a higher propensity to remain childless. In Russia, childlessness is more prevalent among less successful men, with a lower level of education and with an unemployment status. Beyond the similarities in the road to childlessness between gender and countries, in Romania, the effect of significant factors on childlessness is more accentuated for women than for men. Also, it seems the diffusion of childlessness in Romania is related to more privileged women and less successful men. Bulgarian and Russian results are more nuanced by gender.

Keywords

childlessness, women, men, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia



Book Review

Grazyna Liczbinska (2015) Lutherans in the Poznan Province: Biological Dynamics of the Lutheran Population in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries. Verlag Dr. Kovac (reviewed by Elena Crinela Holom)