Adjusting to Change: School-related Practices and Perceptions in Moldovan and Ukrainian Transnational Families
Volume: XVII Issue: 1, Pages: 33-64
Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Political, Administrative and Communication Sciences,
General Traian Moşoiu 71, Cluj-Napoca, 400132, Romania,
This paper discusses parents’ and children’s perspectives on the challenges that parental migration generates for children’s school performance and activities, with a focus on transnational families from the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine. The study is based on interviews and focus-groups with children, migrant parents and parents who stayed at home to look after the young ones. Results show that school-related difficulties are sensitive to post-migration circumstances back home, largely derived from the absence of only one or of both parents, while also affirming the overall resilience of children in relation to their education.
education, transnational families, labour migration, children, parental absence, Moldova, Ukraine.
Amuedo-Dorantes, C., Pozo, S. (2010). “Accounting for remittance and migration effects on children’s schooling”. World Development 38(12): 1747-1759.
Antman, F. M. (2012). “Gender, educational attainment, and the impact of parental migration on children left behind”. Journal of Population Economics 25(4): 1187-1214.
Antman, F. M. (2013). “The impact of migration on family left behind”. In Constant, A. F., Zimmermann, K. F. (eds.). International Handbook on the Economics of Migration. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 293-308.
Arguillas, M. J. B., Williams, L. (2010). “The impact of parents’ overseas employment on educational outcomes of Filipino children”. International Migration Review 44(2): 300-319.
Baldassar, L., Kilkey, M., Merla, L., Wilding, R. (2014). “Transnational Families”. In: Treas, J., Scott, J. Richards M. (ed.). The Wiley Blackwell Companion to the Sociology of Families. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 155-175.
Botezat, A., Pfeiffer, F. (2020). “The impact of parental labour migration on left‐behind children’s educational and psychosocial outcomes: Evidence from Romania”. Population, Space and Place 26(2): e2277.
Borodchuk, N., Cherenko, L. (2021). “Child poverty and disparities in Ukraine. UNICEF Ukraine and Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine”. https://www.unicef.org/ukraine/en/child-poverty-and-disparities-ukraine, accessed May 21st, 2023.
Braun, V., Clarke, V. (2006). “Using thematic analysis in psychology”. Qualitative Research in Psychology 3(2): 77-101.
Bryceson, D. F. (2019). “Transnational families negotiating migration and care life cycles across nation-state borders”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 45(16): 3042-3064.
Castro, M., Expósito-Casas, E., López-Martín, E., Lizasoain, L., Navarro-Asencio, E., Gaviria, J. L. (2015). “Parental involvement on student academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review 14: 33-46.
Cebotari, V., Siegel, M., Mazzucato, V. (2016). “Migration and the education of children who stay behind in Moldova and Georgia”. International Journal of Educational Development 51: 96-107.
Clifton-Sprigg, J. M. (2019). “Out of sight, out of mind? The education outcomes of children with parents working abroad”. Oxford Economic Papers 71(1): 73-94.
Cooper, H., Lindsay, J. J., Nye, B. (2000). “Homework in the home: How student, family, and parenting-style differences relate to the homework process”. Contemporary Educational Psychology 25(4): 464–487.
Desforges, C., Abouchaar, A. (2003). “The Impact of Parental Involvement, Parental Support and Family Education on Pupil Achievements and Adjustment: A Literature Review. Research Report No. 433. Department for Education and Skills”.https://www.nationalnumeracy.org.uk/sites/
default/files/documents/impact_of_parental_involvement/the_impact_of_parental_involvement.pdf, accessed May 17th, 2023.
Dreby, J. (2007). “Children and power in Mexican transnational families”. Journal of Marriage and Family 69(4): 1050-1064.
Dreby, J. (2010). Divided by borders: Mexican migrants and their children. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ducu, V., Hărăguş, M., Angi, D., Telegdi-Csetri, Á. (2023). “Asserting children’s rights through the digital practices of transnational families”. Family Relations 72(2): 458-477.
Gassmann, F., Siegel, M., Vanore, M., Waidler, J. (2013). “The impact of migration on children left behind in Moldova”. MERIT Working Paper 2013 – 043, United Nations University – Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology.
Giannelli, G. C., Mangiavacchi, L. (2010). “Children’s schooling and parental migration: Empirical evidence on the ‘left‐behind’ generation in Albania”. Labour 24(s1): 76-92.
Ginsburg, G. S., Bronstein, P. (1993). “Family factors related to children’s intrinsic/extrinsic motivational orientation and academic performance”. Child Development 64(5): 1461-1474.
Gonida, E. N., Cortina, K. S. (2014). “Parental involvement in homework: Relations with parent and student achievement‐related motivational beliefs and achievement”. British Journal of Educational Psychology 84(3): 376-396.
Grolnick, W. S., Slowiaczek, M. L. (1994). “Parents’ involvement in children’s schooling: A multidimensional conceptualization and motivational model”. Child Development 65(1): 237–252.
Hill, N. E., Castellino, D. R., Lansford, J. E., Nowlin, P., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S. (2004). “Parent academic involvement as related to school behavior, achievement, and aspirations: Demographic variations across adolescence.” Child Development 75(5): 1491-1509.
Hill, N. E., Taylor, L. C. (2004). “Parental School Involvement and Children’s Academic Achievement: Pragmatics and Issues”. Current Directions in Psychological Science 13(4): 161–164.
Hill, N. E., Tyson, D. F. (2009). “Parental involvement in middle school: A meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement”. Developmental Psychology 45(3): 740–763.
Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Battiano, A. C., Walker, J. M. T., Reed, R. P., DeJong, J. M., Jones, K. P. (2001). “Parental involvement in homework”. Educational Psychologist 36(3): 195–209.
Jeynes, W. H. (2005). “Effects of parental involvement and family structure on the academic achievement of adolescents”. Marriage & Family Review 37(3): 99-116.
Jordan, L. P., Dito, B., Nobles, J., Graham, E. (2018). “Engaged parenting, gender, and children’s time use in transnational families: An assessment spanning three global regions”. Population, Space and Place 24(7): e2159.
Kandel, W. (2003). “The impact of US migration on Mexican children’s educational attainment”. In Cosio M., Marcoux, R., Pilon, M., Quesnel, A. (ed.). Education, Family and Population Dynamics. Paris: CICRED, pp. 305-328.
Kandel, W., Kao, G. (2001). “The Impact of Temporary Labor Migration on Mexican Children’s Educational Aspirations and Performance”. International Migration Review 35(4): 1205–1231.
Kim, S. W. (2018). How and why fathers are involved in their children’s education: Gendered model of parent involvement. Educational Review 70(3): 280-299.
Kim, S. W., & Hill, N. E. (2015). “Including fathers in the picture: A meta-analysis of parental involvement and students’ academic achievement”. Journal of Educational Psychology 107(4), 919–934.
Lu, Y. (2014). “Parental migration and education of left‐behind children: A comparison of two settings”. Journal of Marriage and Family 76(5): 1082-1098.
Madianou, M. (2014). “Polymedia communication and mediatized migration: An ethnographic approach”. In: Lundby, K. (ed.) Mediatization of Communication. Handbooks of Communication Science. Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter Mounton, pp. 323–348.
Mazzucato, V., Schans, D. (2011). “Transnational families and the well-being of children: Conceptual and methodological challenges”. Journal of Marriage and the Family 73(4): 704-712.
McKenzie, D., & Rapoport, H. (2011). “Can migration reduce educational attainment? Evidence from Mexico”. Journal of Population Economics 24(4): 1331-1358.
Moroni, S., Dumont, H., Trautwein, U., Niggli, A., Baeriswyl, F. (2015). “The need to distinguish between quantity and quality in research on parental involvement: The example of parental help with homework”. The Journal of Educational Research 108(5): 417–431.
Patall, E. A., Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C. (2008). “Parent involvement in homework: A research synthesis”. Review of Educational Research 78(4): 1039-1101.
Pomerantz, E. M., Moorman, E. A., Litwack, S. D. (2007). “The How, Whom, and Why of Parents’ Involvement in Children’s Academic Lives: More Is Not Always Better”. Review of Educational Research 77(3): 373–410.
Robila, M. (2011). “Parental migration and children’s outcomes in Romania”. Journal of Child and Family Studies 20(3): 326-333.
Schapiro, N. A., Kools, S. M., Weiss, S. J., Brindis, C. D. (2013). “Separation and reunification: The experiences of adolescents living in transnational families”. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care 43(3): 48-68.
Udrea, G., Guiu, G. (2022). “The Impact of Parents’ Work Migration on the Social, Communication and Educational Experiences of Left-Behind Adolescents”. Central and Eastern European Migration Review 11(2) 101-117.
UNICEF Moldova. (2021). “COVID-19 impact on the remittances. Assessment of coping mechanisms of families with children from the Republic of Moldova. UNICEF Moldova”. https://www.unicef.org/moldova/en/reports/covid-19-impact-remittances, accessed May 18th, 2023.
Vanore, M., Mazzucato, V., Siegel, M. (2015). :‘“Left behind’ but not left alone: parental migration & the psychosocial health of children in Moldova”. Social Science & Medicine 132: 252-260.
Wen, M., Lin, D. (2012). “Child development in rural China: children left behind by their migrant parents and children of non-migrant families”. Child Development 83(1): 120–36.
Yang, D. (2008). “International migration, remittances and household investment: Evidence from Philippine migrants’ exchange rate shocks”. The Economic Journal 118(528): 591-630.
Zentgraf, K. M., Chinchilla, N. S. (2012). “Transnational family separation: A framework for analysis”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38(2): 345-366.